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Jitka Komendová Languages and Communities in Russia in 15th to 18th Century

The aim of the article is to extend and add detail to the cultural and social history of the Russian language presented by Peter Burke in his book Languages and Communities in Early Modern Europe. The main focus is on the dramatic linguistic controversies, which surrounded the translation of liturgical texts and the orthographic reform. These events are wholly neglected by Burke and yet, their impact on the society as a whole clearly shows that even in the context of Burke’s central emphasis on Europe-wide issues, they were far from regional or marginal. The author also finds it necessary to thoroughly reinterpret the relation between the Russian language and Church Slavonic, which Burke rather imprecisely treats as analogical to the relation between vernacular languages and Latin in the Western and Central Europe.

Jitka Komendová ALEXANDR KULIK (ed.), Istorija jevrejskogo naroda v Rossii, díl 1: Ot drevnosti do ranněgo Novogo vremeni

Jitka Komendová ANDREJ L’VOVIČ JURGANOV, Ubit’ besa. Put’ ot Sredněvekovja k Novomu vremeni

Jitka Komendová Russian Mediaeval Studies in the Soviet Era as a Research Problem

This article is concerned with contemporary Russian research on Russian Mediaeval Studies in the Soviet era. Historians of Russian Mediaeval Studies faced repression in the twentieth century to an extent and for a length of time and in an intensity not experienced by historians in any other European country of those days. It is therefore understandable that researchers now look at the past of their own field mainly through the lens of the history of repression. Though picture from outside the trampled field of scholarship (historians in particular and the field in general), as well as victims of the totalitarian regime, is in many respects an accurate one, it has pushed to the background the fact that not only ideologists misused topics from history, but so did scholars themselves, who met this ‘social demand’ and actively took part in disciplining their own field. These fundamental questions, however, have previously not been considered in Russian historiography to the extent they deserve.

Jitka Komendová VALERIJ BORISOVIČ PERCHAVKO, Torgovyj mir sredněvekovoj Rusi

Jitka Komendová ARON JAKOVLEVIČ GUREVIČ, Istorija – něskončajemyj spor. Medievistika i skandinavistika: Stat’ji raznych lět

Jitka Komendová VLADIMIR NIKOLAJEVIČ RUDAKOV, Mongolo-tatary glazami drevněrusskich knižnikov serediny XIII–XV vv.; ROBERT URBAŃSKI, Tartarorum gens brutalis

Jitka Komendová JULIJA JEVGEŇJEVNA ARNAUTOVA, Kolduny i svjatyje: Antropologija bolezni v srednije veka

Jitka Komendová The Women of Medieval Rus

The article is concerned with one of the current directions in Russian historiography – gender history, and specifically gender history as applied to medieval Rus. The source base for research into gender aspects of society in Rus up to the 15th century has a specific character and is far less extensive and diverse than material from the Catholic part of Europe, which means that many problems that are engaging the interest of western historiography are essentially insoluble when it comes to Rus. Although there is intense discussion of gender history among Russian academics, as among their western counterparts, research has tended to be confined to the history of women (women's history, istorichesaya feminologiya). The excessive isolation of research on women's themes is manifest not only in relation to their male opposite pole, but in a certain separation from other research of the history of medieval Rus. Russian gender history is for the moment excessively orientated to the diachronnic aspect and studies individual isolated themes over very long time periods, sometimes even millennia. One of the main task of current gender-orientated medieval studies is therefore to pay greater attention to synchronic aspects, i.e. to the integration of gender themes into the image of a specific epoch with all its distinctive cultural and social features and mental climate.